If you have read even one article on behavioral economics, then you have probably run across the mug/pen experiment. In this experiment, as it has been run many, many times, subjects are much less willing to trade the object they have been initially given, whether it is the mug or the pen, for the other object. This experiment is said to illustrate the endowment effect, which basically says that I value what is mine over an equivalent object that is not mine. Although I might pay $3 for the mug in the first place, I would require more than $3 to give it up. Two presenters at MLEA talked about the endowment effect. Scott Moss talked about the endowment effect with regard to employment discrimination damages: Judges' "Behavior" Problems: What Behavioral Economics Says Employment Discrimination Law is Getting Wrong (Or; "Yes, Virginia, There is a Prescriptive Aspect to Behavioral Law & Economics)." If I get fired discriminatorily, but I find another job paying the same amount by the end of the day, I may still have noneconomic damages because I valued my current job more. I look forward to seeing the final paper, as the topic was very intriguing.
The second presenter on this subject was Kathy Zeiler, who turned the conventional wisdom on the endowment effect on its ear. The presentation was based on a paper she co-authored with Charles R. Plott of CalTech: The Willingness to Pay/Willingness to Accept Gap, the Endowment Effect, and Experimental Procedures for Eliciting Valuations. By altering the procedures of the experiment, Kathy was able to produce much less of a gap. For example, subjects were more likely to trade if the mug was not placed in front of them and if they merely had to check a box on a form to trade, instead of raising their hands. I think these new findings are important for the study of securities trading. If investors really buy quickly and sell slowly, is this because of the endowment effect? Investors rarely, if ever, physically see the securities they own. Are investors more likely to feel an endowment effect for securities they pick over securities an advisor picked for them?
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